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36PACIFICFISHERIESREVIEWspecialsupplementtoJuLY2012Fishermenx19snewsOPINIONtheCAnnedtunAindustrywascreatedandpioneeredinSouthernCaliorniainthe1920s.Tankstotheinventivespiritandhardworkocannersandx2shermenthefeetgrewsteadilytonearly150boatsandthecannersfourishedinCaliorniaaswellasAmericanSamoaandPuertoRico.TeAmericantunafeetwasthedominantorceintheworldotunax2shingbarnone.Butallthishardworkinnovationandsuccesswasabouttocollidewiththeworldopoliticsandregulation.Bythemid-1970stheUStunaindustrywasx2ghtingorsurvival.AconfuenceoeventssoonledtotherapiddemiseothisAmerican-bornindustryanddelivereditstraightintothehandsooreigncompetition.Teclosureostate-o-the-artcanneriesinCaliorniainavorolowercostoverseasprocessinginSamoaandPuertoRicotheworld-wideadoptionothenew200-milex2shingzonelimitandtheenvironmentalcampaignstoprotectdolphinporpoiseromincidentaldeathintunanetsweremorethantheUStunaindustrycouldwithstand.Othethreeactorstheenvi-ronmentalchallengeregardingdolphinprovedtobethemostdeadlybothortheindustryandthedolphins.TetravestyisthattheUStunax2shermenhadalreadyworkedoryearstodevelopandperecttechniquestosaelyreleasedolphinencircledinsidethesamenetwiththeschoolotuna.ArelativelysimpletechniquethisdolphinriendlyprocedurehadbecomecommonpracticeorallotheUSownedandoperatedtunavesselsormanyyears.ButthiswasnotthecasewithoreignoperatedvesselsromSpainSouthAmericaandAsiawhichreceivedlittleianyattentionromenvironmentalgroupswhoappearedtobemoreinterestedinperpetuatingundraisingcampaignsthanintherealprogresswhichexistedintheUStunafeettoprotectdolphins.Bythemid-1980stheUStunaindustrywasinseriousjeopardywithmanyx2shermenorcedtoselltheirboatsindistresssalesorbankruptcy.TebuyersForeignownerswhodidnx19tadoptthedolphinriendlytechniquesormanymoreyears.InthemeantimethedolphinandtheUStunax2shermenpaidaseverepricewhichcannotbereversed.EventheUS-controlledcanninginterestslosttheirdominantpositionintheindus-tryandnowollowtheleadocanneriesthatjumpedintothegameromTailandKoreaJapanthePhilippinesandIndonesia.Aneraspanning70yearscametoapainulandabruptendorthisoncevibrantandthrivingUSbuiltindustry.Acolorulandproudheritageox2shermenandtheiramiliesmostlyoPortugueseItalianCroatianandJapaneseancestrywhoproudlyfewtheUSfagromthemastotheirvesselshasbeenlost.Maywelearnfromourmistakes.yTunaTheRiseandFallofanAmericanIndustryByJoeMartinacJr.JOEMARTINACJR.isthePresidentox1cJ.MMartinacShipbuildinginTacomaWashington.Theshipyardbuiltafeetox1cverysuccessx1cultunaseinersinthe1970sand1980sandrecentlyhasbeenbuildingaseriesox1cmodernazimuthingdrivetugboatsx1corusebytheUSNavy.Thecompanyhasalsobegunconstructionox1catechnologically-advanced184-x1cootx1creezer-longlinertheFVNorthernLeaderx1corAlaskanLeaderFisheriesLLC.